A Violent Episode in Northern Florida

Dr. Robert Hayling

In September 1963, Dr. Robert Hayling, “father” of the civil rights movement in St. Augustine, Fla., along with some activists, were caught spying on a Ku Klux Klan rally. The men were severely beaten. Hayling recalls, “They had beat us across the head and body and they had us piled on top of each other.”